RESOURCES


WHAT ARE PFOS & PFOA?

Studies have found PFOS and PFOA in the blood samples of the general human population and wildlife nationwide, indicating that exposure to the chemicals is widespread (ATSDR 2009; EPA 2006a). Reported data indicate that serum concentrations of PFOS and PFOA are higher in workers and individuals living near fluorochemical production facilities than for the general population (Calafat and others 2007; EPA 2009c).

Studies also indicate that continued exposure to low levels of PFOA in drinking water may result in adverse health effects (Post and others 2012).

PFOS and PFOA are fully fluorinated, organic compounds and are the two perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) that have been produced in the largest amounts within the United States (ATSDR 2009; EFSA 2008). PFOS is a perfluoralkyl sulfonate that is commonly used as a simple salt (such as potassium, sodium or ammonium) or is incorporated into larger polymers (EFSA 2008; EPA 2009c). PFOA is a perfluoralkyl carboxylate that is produced synthetically as a salt. Ammonium salt is the most widely produced form (EFSA 2008; EPA 2009c). -Emerging Contaminants – United States Environmental Protection Agency “Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) and Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA)” March 2014 Learn More

WHAT ARE THE ROUTES OF EXPOSURE & HEALTH EFFECTS OF PFOS and PFOA?

Food, Water, Air…

Studies also indicate that continued exposure to low levels of PFOA in drinking water may result in adverse health effects (Post and others 2012).

Potential pathways, which may lead to widespread exposure, include ingestion of food and water, use of commercial products or inhalation from longrange air transport of PFC-containing particulate matter (ATSDR 2009; EPA 2009c).

Cancer & Other Diseases

In May 2006, the EPA Science Advisory Board suggested that PFOA cancer data are consistent with the EPA guidelines for the Carcinogen Risk Assessment descriptor “likely to be carcinogenic to humans.” EPA is still evaluating this information and additional research pertaining to the carcinogenicity of PFOA (EPA 2006b, 2013a).

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has classified PFOA as a Group A3 carcinogen — confirmed animal carcinogen with unknown relevance to humans (ACGIH 2002).

Studies have shown that PFCs may induce modest effects on reactive oxygen species and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage in the cells of the human liver (Eriksen and others 2010; Reistad and others 2013).

Analysis of U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey representative study samples indicate that higher concentrations of serum PFOA and PFOS are associated with thyroid disease in the U.S. general adult population. Further analysis is needed to identify the mechanisms underlying this association (Melzer and others 2010). Epidemiologic studies have shown an association between PFOS exposure and bladder cancer; however, further research and analysis are needed to understand this association (Alexander and others 2004; Lau and others 2007).

-Emerging Contaminants – United States Environmental Protection Agency “Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) and Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA)” March 2014 Learn More

WHAT ARE THE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS?

Because of their chemical structure, PFCs, including PFOS and PFOA, are chemically and biologically stable in the environment and resist typical environmental degradation processes, including atmospheric photooxidation, direct photolysis and hydrolysis. As a result, these chemicals are extremely persistent in the environment (OECD 2002; Schultz and others 2003).

The wide distribution of PFCs increases the potential for bioaccumulation and bioconcentration as they are transferred from low to higher trophic level organisms. Because of their persistence and long-term accumulation, higher trophic level wildlife such as fish, piscivorous birds and other biota can continue to be exposed to PFOS and PFOA (EPA 2006a; UNEP 2006).

-Emerging Contaminants – United States Environmental Protection Agency “Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) and Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA)” March 2014 Learn More

What the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) says about TCE. One of the chemicals drank by many:

Trichloroethylene is used as a solvent for cleaning metal parts. Exposure to very high concentrations of trichloroethylene can cause dizziness, headaches, sleepiness, incoordination, confusion, nausea, unconsciousness, and even death. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classify trichloroethylene as a human carcinogen. Read More…

PDF VERSION CLICK HERE


“Toxicity to humans and wildlife is well documented.” “Recommendations: Avoid, proper workplace protection”

Additional Reading From Toxipedia Click Here

US DHHS Public Health Assessment for Wurtsmith AFB April 30, 2001

“This Public Health Assessment was prepared by ATSDR pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA or Superfund) section 104 (0(6) (42 U S C 9664 (0(6)), and in accordance with our implementing regulations (42 C ER Part 90) In preparing this document, ATSDR has collected relevant health data, environmental data, and community health concerns from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), state and local health and environmental agencies, the community, and potentially responsible parties, where appropriate” Read More…

Oscoda MDHHS PFC & VOC Meeting March 2016 1st Presentation

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